Armenia is a landlocked, mountainous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The land: Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
History: Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat, upon which Noah’s Ark is said to have come to rest after the flood. (Bible, Gen. 8:4). There is evidence of an early civilization in Armenia in the Bronze Age, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world’s earliest known leather and wine-producing facility.
People: Ethnic Armenians make up 97.9% of the population. Yazidis make up 1.3%, and Russians 0.5%. Other minorities include Assyrians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Kurds, Georgians, and Belarusians. There are also smaller communities of Vlachs, Mordvins, Ossetians, Udis, and Tats. Minorities of Poles and Caucass Germans also exist though they are heavily Russified.
During the Soviet era, Azerbaijanis were historically the second largest population in the country (forming about 2.5% in 1989). However, due to the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, virtually all of them emigrated from Armenia to Azerbaijan. Conversely, Armenia received a large influx of Armenian refugees from Azerbaijan, thus giving Armenia a more homogeneous character.
Economy: The economy relies heavily on investment and support from Armenians abroad. Before independence, Armenia’s economy was largely industry-based – chemicals, electronics, machinery, processed food, synthetic rubber, and textile – and highly dependent on outside resources. The republic had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Recently, the Intel Corporation agreed to open a research center in Armenia, in addition to other technology companies, signaling the growth of the technology industry in Armenia..
Climate: The climate in Armenia is markedly continental. Summers are dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. The temperature fluctuates between 22 and 36 °C (72 and 97 °F). However, the low humidity level mitigates the effect of high temperatures. Evening breezes blowing down the mountains provide a welcome refreshing and cooling effect. Springs are short, while falls are long. Autumns are known for their vibrant and colorful foliage.
Armenia has been around for at least 3,000 years. Armenians have historically inhabited the “Armenian Highlands”, a vast section of mountains and valleys across eastern Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus. It is here that the biblical mountains of Ararat (and today’s eponymous cognac brand) can be found. Armenia became the world’s first Christian country in 301 AD.
Various vassal states, principalities, kingdoms and empires rose and fell in different parts of this highland during history. They were unified once, just before the time of Christ, in the empire of Tigran the Great, which stretched from the Caspian to the Mediterranean Sea.
Much of the region’s history has since been spent under the dominion of whichever great power was à la mode at the time: Romans, Byzantines, Ottomans, Persians, Russians and Soviets have all come and gone. These empires often fought their wars on Armenian territory, using Armenian soldiers. Despite rarely being politically independent, Armenians have consistently kept their language and their church. Its location on the silk road allowed Armenia to forge a link in the great network of merchant communities that extended from eastern Asia to Venice.
Russians and Ottomans dominated Armenia’s modern history. Ottoman control was established early, upon the fall of the Byzantine empire in the fifteenth century. Russia’s presence was established later, in the 1820s, after a series of wars with the Persians.
Islamic Ottoman rule was, for much of the time, largely benign. The Armenians’ religious autonomy was bought through their higher taxation. However, relations soured in the late nineteenth century which saw various massacres of Armenians. This culminated in the Ottomans’ reputation being thoroughly ruined during the Armenian Genocide of 1915-1923.
During the First World War, the Ottomans fought the Russians. The Christian Armenians on the Ottomans’ Russian border were considered liable to side with Russia and so they were treated as an enemy. The Ottomans attempted to kill or deport the entire Armenian population. Even the Ottomans’ defeat in 1918 did not prevent the continuation of the persecution which continued until 1923 and saw approximately 600,000 – 1.5 million people perish.
The genocide led to the huge Armenian diaspora community that exists all over the world today and the ongoing diplomatic hostility between Turkey and Armenia, since Turkey continues to deny it was a genocide, and resents Armenia for bringing up the topic internationally.
As all over the Soviet Union, Armenia saw great industrial growth and widespread increases in education. Yerevan mushroomed from a dusty garrison town of 20,000 to a metropolis of 1 million and the Soviet culture machine, within strict limits, churned out heavily subsidized cultural education and activities.
As the Soviet Union fell apart in the early 1990s, the Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh, a culturally Armenian region in Azerbaijan, fought for independence from Azerbaijan with support from Armenia, and the Armenian Diaspora. The war was won militarily, but no diplomatic solution was reached. The ceasefire line of 1994 now represents a de facto national boundary and Nagorno-Karabakh is in an odd state of unrecognized statehood. While the fighting on the ground stopped, with only minor exceptions, diplomatic tensions still run high. The Armenian/Karabakh borders with Azerbaijan are closed. Turkey has also closed its land border with Armenia in support of its Azeri-Turk kinsmen.
A small and mountainous, landlocked country, Armenia almost never fails to surprise visitors. The mountain passes, valleys and canyons make it feel much larger, and Lake Sevan provides a welcome sight, with endless water visible from its southern shores. Given the geographic variation, there is also much variety of climate — there are barren lunar landscapes, forests, snow-capped peaks and alpine lakes.
Five percent of the country’s surface area consists of Lake Sevan (Sevana Lich), the largest lake in the Lesser Caucasus mountain range.
Armenia is at the fascinating crossroads of Europe and Asia and its culture draws from both. While many Armenians consider themselves European, their social conservatism in some realms is not
consistent with Europe proper. The new world faced by Armenians after the fall of the Soviet Union has seen great social changes especially in the capital, Yerevan. The small and very homogeneous (about 99% Armenian) population is strongly family oriented. The people across the land are very hospitable, and place a lot of pride in their hospitality. Show up in a village without a penny, and food and a place to stay will flow – along with drinks and endless toasts.
Armenia also has lots of road signs in English, and there are a fair amount of English-speaking Armenians in general, and you get the distinct feeling that tourists are welcome. Police don’t appear to be too crooked, at least not in Yerevan, and in general the country appears to be both reasonably safe and well-organised.
Prepare and Plan Visit
In this initial contact the Relocation Coordinator will brief the Transferee, introducing destination services commissioned, and provide access codes to HTLC Network on-line City-Specific Resource Guides. In addition, the Relocation Coordinator will help the Transferee assess personal and family’s housing needs, as well as their hopes and plans for the sojourn in your new destination. The Transferee will be asked to fill out a Personal Needs Analysis Form, which will enable customized service delivery. After gaining a sense of the Transferee’s needs, the Relocation Coordinator will arrange appointments with schools and real estate agents, an appointment will be set up with one of the Local Counsellors for a city briefing and a programme will be finalised for accompanied property and school viewings.
Airport Pickup and Greeting The Transferee and family will be met at the airport by a Local Counsellor and accompanied to designated hotel.
Destination Country and City Information
The Transferee will be given a briefing on the local city and life in your new destination in general, and will be encouraged to ask any questions. An Information Pack on the destination city will be provided. This Pack includes an information sheet with the HTLC Network office and Local Counsellor contact information and emergency telephone numbers. Further, it includes a city and transport map as well as a hard copy of HTLC Network own City-Specific Resource Guide, which contains a wealth of information such as telephone access codes, English-speaking doctors and expatriate clubs. When available, a copy of the English Yellow Pages, local English language periodicals and other relevant information will also be included in the Information Pack.
City by Zone Tour
The purpose of this tour is to familiarise the Transferee with selected areas of the city and type of housing and amenities available, in order to be better prepared to select the neighbourhood most suitable for personal and family needs. The City By Zone Tour is often delivered in conjunction with a house hunting programme.
International Schooling The Transferee will be briefed on educational opportunities in the area. The Relocation Coordinator will schedule appointments at the selected schools, and the Local Counsellor will accompany the Transferee to pre-arranged appointments although the appointments will be privately held between the Transferee and school administrators. Where possible, the Relocation Coordinator will organise enrolment procedure and arrange for company invoicing.
Full-Day Househunting Programme Following an in-depth briefing by the Relocation Coordinator a programme of property viewings will be arranged. The Local Counsellor will accompany the Transferee to pre-arranged viewings of up to eight properties.
Two-Day Househunting Programme Following an in-depth briefing by the Relocation Coordinator a programme of property viewings will be arranged. The Local Counsellor will accompany the Transferee to pre-arranged viewings of up to fifteen properties.
Lease Negotiation After the Transferee has selected a property, the Relocation Coordinator will negotiate lease conditions with the real estate agency or landlord according to The national destination law. HTLC Network coordinator will prepare a contract that ensures legal protection for the client. Particular attention is given to include a break clause, as international assignments often change in duration and the aim is to give maximum flexibility within the limits of the national destination law.
Property Inspection and Inventory Once the lease has been signed, a thorough property inspection is taken in the presence of the Transferee. This includes an inventory of any furnishings, general condition of the property, and meter readings for utility contracts.
Utility Connections, Phone Line and Bank Account The Relocation Coordinator will arrange all utility and telephone connections, and a Local Counsellor will accompany the Transferee to open a bank account in the selected area.
Settling-In Assistance The Local Counsellor will spend time with the Transferee and family, assisting with requested elements of the relocation process, such as arranging language training, obtaining a satellite decoder or internet service provider, shopping for furniture or securing house contents insurance. Duration of this service depends on various company authorizations.
Car Purchase or Lease The Relocation Coordinator will brief the Transferee on the logistics of making an automobile purchase and will research reputable dealers in the area. The Local Counsellor will accompany the Transferee to dealers and act as a translator. Once the Transferee has made the selection, HTLC Network will take care of necessary documentation including insurance cover. For long-term rental HTLC Network will advise local availability of this service.
If the Transferee requests, and is eligible, the Local Counsellor will assist with National Health Registration. City hall registration is a separate service and if authorizied, HTLC Network will assist with the whole bureaucratic procedure at the relative cityhall.
Ongoing Phone Support The EMC Network support Helpline is available to all Transferees for 90 days from date of property contract signing. Extensions to this Helpline can be added in periods of three months.
Car Importation Importation of car to your new destination, including full document assistance and re-registration with Vehicle registry.
Full Assignment Tracking Full tracking of all deadlines throughout duration of the Transferees international assignment, notification given of all scheduled renewal dates, such as housing contracts, Permit of Stay and Work Permits. Ad Hoc Services Service rendered both from back and front office is available on an hourly and daily basis.
Immigration procedures and requirements vary greatly from country to country. Documents requested from applicants depend on the citizenship of the individual applying and the status he wishes to obtain in the destination country, be it authorisation to work, authorisation for accompanying family members, tourist or study visas, temporary or permanent residency status.
• HTLC Network has been selected by many International Law and Immigration Firms as well as Global Relocation Companies to represent them exclusively for immigration
• We work closely with the relevant governmental and police authorities in each country
• Our Immigration Team are experts in immigration laws and keep abreast of changing requirements and procedures
• We prepare all documentation for HR, all you have to do is print out and sign
• We inform the Transferee which specific documents are required , which translations must be obtained and if these must be legalised
• We provide HR and Transferees with information on the process flow, timing and specific legal requirements of each destination
• We update all parties involved regularly as to the status of the application
• Whenever possible, we act with a Power of Attorney on behalf of the company and the Transferee; when the Transferee’s presence is required, he will be accompanied to the relevant office in the destination city
• Our Local Counsellors, residents and locals of the destination city, are able to present the all prepared documentation to the relevant offices in person; thus speeding up the process and ensuring an efficient service
For more info about our immigration services in Albania please contact our marketing department at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia and one of the world’s oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country.It has been the capital since 1918, the thirteenth in the history of Armenia.
One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan’s name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand IV (the Last), the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty, and founder of the city of Yervandashat. The principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, which is visible from any area in the capital.
The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a pedestal with the inscription “Yerevan.” The lion’s head is turned backwards while it holds a scepter using the right front leg, the attribute of power and royalty. The emblem is a rectangular shield with a blue border.
An Unfurnished properties: one would expect an equipped kitchen with furniture and electrical appliances facilities. The kitchen and a bathroom would have cold and hot water supply.
Semi-furnished property: this would include tables, chairs, sofa, bedroom furniture, TV, furnished and equipped kitchen (as above), possibly air conditioning – in other words basic furnishings.
Fully furnished property: this would include living room furniture, dining room furniture, bed room furniture, children room (this is upon agreement), all electro-domestics, air conditioning, cold and hot water supplies, TV, satellite antenna, etc.
Certain flexibility exists; most landlords are open to requests, although if a lot is requested there may be a corresponding raise in rental fee.
There is some flexibility for furnishings but not a lot for rental cost.
This depends on the Relocation Package you have; Our Basic Package includes 8 properties and our Extended Package include 15 properties. You will be told at the outset how many properties you will be shown or how much time you have available to do the house hunting. The properties provided will be as close to your ‘Needs Analysis’ description as possible according to what is available on the market at the time.
A holding deposit is not required, a property is secure as soon as a lease contract is signed and initial payment made.
Real estate agencies charge one month rent as commission. First rental installment is paid in advance (usually one month, sometimes quarterly).
One month security deposit is required (this can be used as final month’s rent upon contract expiration, if all is in order).
Condominium expense where applicable, to cover lighting and maintenance of common areas and elevator.
A legally valid rental contract is set up as follows: The landlord must go to a cadastre agency (the National Agency, which is responsible for registering property ownership throughout the country) and declare that his property is going to be rented.
Both parties (landlord and tenant) must go to a notary before whom a contract is made. The contract (about 7 pages) will be made in the Armenian language with translation into any language as required by the tenant. The fee of the notary document including written translation is approx 70 Euro. All costs must however be paid in Armenian drams according to an official rate of the Central Bank of Armenia of that day.
Each month the tenant has to pay 10% of the monthly rent to the Tax agency. The landlord must pay 20% of the total rental sum at the expiration of the contract.
Please note: 80% of contracts in Armenia are not legally valid contracts as most Landlords wish to avoid having to pay taxes on income, therefore if a tenant requires a legally valid contract, the Landlord may well impose a higher rental fee to ensure he/she covers the money to be paid in tax.
Provided notice period is honoured and the property left in the same state as when it was consigned, this is usually not an issue.
The tenant is responsible to keep all furnishings in good repair; the landlord is responsible for property maintenance, as will be specified in the rental contract.
Only with written consent of the landlord.
As long as a break clause has been inserted, this is possible; however the initial deposit (the last month’s payment) will be forfeited.
Usually a tenant will have to pay electricity, water, gas (piped gas is available in the capital and large cities, otherwise bottled gas ) and telephone if a landline is installed.
Garbage tax is often incorporated into the rental charge or condominium charge.
Yes, it is available.
Telephone contracts are kept in the name of the Landlord nearly all cases.
Yes. This is available.
If it is a new property and no phone line without a phone line installed, then it could take several months, even a year. If a line does exist and the request is to connect the line, then it will take approximately one to two weeks.
Telephone lines remain in the name of the landlord.
Bills are delivered directly to the landlord by the service provider.
An international license is required.
Upon importing your own car to Armenia you need to provide the technical data on your car and your driving license. After registration you will receive a 6 months visa for the car. After that you can either apply once more for a 6 months visa or apply for customs clearance.
For customs clearance the documents required are: a resident card, passport, original technical documents of the vehicle and drivers license.
Yes. A foreigner can buy a car. Documents required are a valid passport and residency card.
Foreigners wishing to work in Armenia do not formally require a Work Permit but only a Temporary Residence Permit for reasons of work.
No, you can enter Armenia with a visitor visa ( for stays of up to 120 days) and apply for a Temporary Residence Permit after arrival.
Your family members are eligible to apply for a Temporary Residence Permit also.
* Extensive rapidly growing client list.
* Exclusive partner/representative of many Global Relocation Service Providers.
* Exclusive representative of many International Law and Immigration Firms.
* Quality control guarantee: Head Office directs all relocations and all staff is required to attend on-going training sessions and workshops to keep updated as to global mobility needs.
* No language barriers – Assistance provided in all major European languages and many others.
* Corporate consultation with HTLC Network’s’ Representatives at location of choice.
* HTLC Network own ‘Resource Guides’ providing a wealth of everyday information for expatlife in destination city.
* Comprehensive FAQs for each country serviced.
* Red Alert List to prepare for the specific challenges of each destination.
* Extra ‘Safety’ section in Resource Guides for countries posing specific security threats.
* 24-hour Emergency Helpline for Transferees throughout the duration of the relocation.
* Complimentary 3-month Helpline.
HTLC Network will prepare all the necessary paperwork, email it to the Company and direct as to how the various documents are to be printed out and signed. We will send one of our Local Counsellors with Power of Attorney (Delega) to act on behalf of the individual and company.
When the Transferee has to be present to apply for a document, he will be accompanied by our Local Counsellor.
When all paper work has been prepared, approved and signed by the relevant companies, it can take 6-8 weeks during which time Italian law states that the expatriate must not be in Italy.
During HTLC Network’ initial teleconference with the client we go through an in-depth ‘Needs Analysis’ which can include Housing Budget variables for the Destination City. HTLC Network will work with the Company to ensure the workforce locate properties of a suitable standard within the parameters set by corporate policy.
Legally, yes, as long as it can be proved that the individual who signs the contract has the legal right to sign as a representative of the Company. Many landlords however, will not accept this as it is harder to take a foreign Company to court should there be any missing rent payments or problems. As landlord’s rarely accept a foreign Company signing the lease, it is usually signed by the local company that is VAT registered in Italy.
HTLC Network will prepare the contract in the name of a legal representative of the Company. We require full data of the individual, a photocopy of his/her passport ID pages and a document demonstrating position within the Company.
The prepared contract will be emailed to the appropriate Company contact and instructions will be given on how it is to be printed out and signed. Once signed, one of HTLC Network’ Local Counsellors will collect the contract and deliver it to the real estate agent for the signature of the landlord. A signed copy will be returned to the Company whilst the three copies of the contract are being registered, thereafter a registered copy will be delivered.
Arrangements will be made to take a thorough inventory in the presence of the tenant and landlord.
For the presentation of document application, it varies from city to city. Wherever possible HTLC Network will prepare power of attorney (Delega) in order for a Local Counsellor to act on behalf of the Transferee and family.
To release the obtained documents, the Transferee and other members of the family must be present as an original signature is required.
All Local Counsellors are really ‘local’ to the area where they assist Transferees. They are selected for their good knowledge of their city area.
All Local Counsellors are trained by HTLC Network to follow our set pattern of delivering services using an in-house ‘Training and Operations Manual’.
All Local Counsellors are closely directed by Office Coordinators, ensuring a consistent standard of service is delivered.
All relocations are handled by the same system of centralisation. When required, we arrange for a member of our office team to go to the location of a group move to be an in-house Coordinator, working from the Client Company’s premises as a point of reference for HR, Transferees and their families.
In main cities we have several Local Counsellors.
HTLC Network aims to equip your workforce to settle into their new environment as soon as possible. Upon arrival they are presented with a local Information Pack. They are given access to our on-line City Specific Resource Guides that provide general local information as well as specific local information once a suitable property has been located.
We have a 24hour emergency helpline throughout the duration of the relocation. We provide a 90 day complimentary phone line that can be extended throughout the duration of the assignment.
Our aim is to teach the Transferee how to live in his new city and to equip him to be as independent as possible.
Area: 29,743 sq km
Time Zone: UTC/GMT +4 hours
Capital city: Yerevan
Bordering countries: Azerbaijan-proper, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave , Georgia, Iran, Turkey.
Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters.
Legislative Branch: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov
National Holiday: Independence Day, 21 September 1991
Currency: Armenian Dram ( ADM )
Population: Approximately 3,000,000 inhabitants Religion: Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist with elements of nature worship)
Languages: Armenian (official) 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4%